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# LibreOffice

In this in-depth series on LibreOffice we examine Writer, Calc and Impress

### Counting Stuff in LibreOffice Calc - Jon Kulp | 2016-07-07

When I took over as Director of the School of Music in January, one of the first things I did was to try to get a better handle on the number of faculty I had at various ranks, how many had terminal degrees, how many already had tenure, how many were on tenure track, how many held endowed professorships, and so forth. Somewhere in the process, I discovered a handy trick for generating reports for this kind of thing. It's the `COUNTIF` function of LibreOffice calc. In this episode I will go through some examples of ways that I've used `COUNTIF` to generate reports.

## Examples

Count occurrences of the string from A6 of current sheet on other sheet Personnel in column K

`=COUNTIF(\$Personnel.\$K\$1:\$K\$135,Reports.A6)`

Count occurrences of explicit string on other sheet "Personnel" in column K

`=COUNTIF(\$Personnel.\$K\$1:\$K\$135,"=Instructor")`

Count greater than or equal to 50

`=COUNTIF(\$I\$2:\$I\$105,">=50")`

Using `SUMPRODUCT`, count between range greater than or equal to 40 but less than 50

`=SUMPRODUCT(\$I\$2:\$I\$105>=40,\$I\$2:\$I\$105<50)`

Look for the string from sheet "Reports," cell A21, in the sheet "Personnel" column U, excluding any rows that have the value "Adjunct" in column K.

`=COUNTIFS(\$Personnel.\$U\$1:\$U\$135,Reports.A21,\$Personnel.\$K\$1:\$K\$135,"<>Adjunct")`

### 67 - LibreOffice Impress - Tables - Ahuka | 2015-12-04

We now have looked at three of the four objects that are offered to you on a new slide: Charts, Pictures, and Movies. So now it is time to take a look at Tables. You have options here, such as embedding a table from Calc or Writer, and there are times when you need that degree of power. But most of the time you can do what you need inside of Impress using its own functionality. As we saw last time with Charts, you can just click the button in the middle of a new slide and insert a Table that way, but that may not always be feasible, so you have the alternative option of going to the Insert menu and selecting Table. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1285

### 66 - LibreOffice Impress - Built-In Charts - Ahuka | 2015-11-20

In the last tutorial we looked at OLE objects, and saw that Charts could be brought into Impress from Calc via OLE. But you can create the Charts directly in Impress. Bear in mind that due to the modular nature of LibreOffice you will be using the same tools to do this as Calc uses: LibreOffice developers never reinvent the wheel if they can avoid it.

There is a lot to know about Charts if you are going to use them effectively, and we covered all of this in our Calc tutorials. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1291

### 65 - LibreOffice Impress - OLE Objects, Spreadsheets, and Charts - Ahuka | 2015-11-06

The next topic we want to cover involves something called OLE, which stands for Object Linking and Embedding. This was developed by Microsoft, but has spread to the free software world as well. What it means is that you can use data from two different programs together, and changes made in place are automatically reflected in the other place. A great example comes with spreadsheets, since you create them in a spreadsheet program like Calc, but you might want to take a table created there and put it into a slide to display. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1275

### 64 - LibreOffice Impress - Multimedia - Ahuka | 2015-10-23

One thing that Impress lets you do that can be kind of fun is to use Multimedia files in your presentations in various ways. Now, there are some interesting limitations here. First of all, any time you want sounds, whether from an audio file or as part of a movie file, you need to have the right hardware. This means a little planning ahead. In many of the places where I do presentations the video is all I have. But most modern projectors, particularly in corporate meeting rooms, have the capability of playing audio as well as video. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1271

### 63 - LibreOffice Impress - Formatting Text - Ahuka | 2015-10-09

I know we have focused a lot on using Styles to control the formatting of text, and there is a reason for that. As I have said so often, uniformity of appearance is an important part of a professional-looking presentation, and that is best done by using the Presentation and Drawing Object styles appropriately. But there is a place for all of the other tools Impress has, and I want to go over some of them now before we move on to other topics. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1262

### 62 - LibreOffice Impress - Working With Text Boxes - Ahuka | 2015-09-25

Text Boxes are considered graphical objects, actually, so they are controlled by the Drawing Object Styles. These can be a little bit confusing because they are shared among different LibreOffice modules, so some of the things you see arent really meant for Impress. For example, there are three Title styles, but none of them are meant for putting titles on slides. They are actually meant for putting titles on drawings, such as engineering drawings. If you you wanted to have a slide title but use Text boxes, you should select the Title Only slide layout. The Title would be controlled by the Title Presentation Style. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1250

### 61 - LibreOffice Impress - Slide Layouts and AutoLayout Text Boxes - Ahuka | 2015-09-11

We have spent several tutorials on graphics, including the Themes and the Gallery, and that is all to the good since Impress is a graphical program to some degree. But it also is a way of presenting text content, and it worth a little time to develop that further. Impress does some things with text that resemble other programs like Writer, but it also does some things differently so it is worth a moment to discuss these specifics. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1245

### 60 - LibreOffice Impress - The Gallery and Themes - Ahuka | 2015-08-28

In the last tutorial we looked at pictures and how they can be used in Impress. But I left out one area because the tutorial was already running a bit long, and I wanted to give the Gallery and Themes the full attention they deserve. I think this is something a lot of people have missed when working with Impress, at least I have not seen these elements includes much in peoples presentations. But they are a wonderful addition to your toolkit, and well-worth some attention. Note that the Gallery is a common feature of all LibreOffice applications, and is available in applications like Writer and Calc, though there is less need for it there. It is when you get to applications like Impress and Draw that you really discover how useful it can be. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1222

### 59 - LibreOffice Impress - Pictures - Ahuka | 2015-08-14

As we pointed out previously, Impress is inherently a graphical, and even multimedia, way of communicating. In fact, we saw in the previous tutorials that Impress and Draw share a common set of Styles that apply to both programs, and I have often seen in documentation that Impress and Draw are often mentioned in the same breath, so to speak. So it is important that we start developing an understanding of the graphical elements in Impress. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1217

### 58 - LibreOffice Impress - Creating a Template for Hacker Public Radio - Ahuka | 2015-07-31

The idea in this tutorial is to tie together some of the concepts developed in the previous tutorials to create a Master Page, or Template, or Slide Master. (They all mean the same thing, but within Impress they are shown on the Sidebar as Master Pages, so I will stick with that terminology here.) I say we will use some of these concepts because trying to put everything into one Master Page would create a hideous end result. And since it helps to have a definite objective in mind I have decided to create one for Hacker Public Radio, where I record these tutorials as podcasts for the Internet. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1204

## LibreOffice Tips: Horizontal Lists

One of these things is how to create horizontal lists in LibreOffice. This is something that I wanted to do, I think it was maybe a year ago that I was really trying to find out how to do this. What I mean by that is I wanted to be able to do in LibreOffice the equivalent of an in-line list in HTML and CSS. There's a way in CSS to tell the browser to display a series of list items in-line rather than vertically—and this is used all the time for footers and headers and things of that sort—and I wanted to be able to do that in LibreOffice because it would ease the process of creating the exams that I make in my classes, where I have a numbered list for all of the questions, and the answers for each question are also done in a numbered list but at the 2nd level—usually done with a, b, c and d, whereas the numbers of the questions are 1, 2, 3, 4, and so forth. What I wanted to be able to do was have the ordered list a, b, c, d spread out horizontally across the page without having to do it manually. So in other words I wanted to be able to type a word for an answer and then press `enter`, and instead of having it go into a new line, have it simply move over to the right a little bit with a new letter in place for the next item in the ordered list. I hope it's clear what I'm after here.

Anyway I never did find a way to do this. I searched online and there were a couple of other people who were interested in doing the same thing but they were all told this is impossible. Well, sort of. I found a workaround for this and it's not all that elegant but in a pinch it could work, and I don't think I would want to do it for an entire test but I thought it was kind of a cool way to do it.

So what you do his make up the ordered list just like usual. I have here on my computer right now opened a document with a single question, question no. 1. And then it has at the 2nd level of ordered list a series of 4 options: red, purple, green, and blue. And each one of these is in a font color of the same name, so that the word "Red" is red, the word "Purple" is in purple, "green" is in green. I do this because it makes it easier to see how these things move up and down. There are little buttons down at the bottom of the screen where if you click on the arrow up or the arrow down, it will move the list item up or down. So right now red is in the 1st position, but if I click the down arrow it will go down to the 2nd position and the one that was formally 2nd is now 1st. So purple and red have switched places.

I want to have this kind of flexibility going horizontally as well, and the way I found to do this was to use columns. I select the 4 items and then under the `Format` menu choose `Columns` and tell it I want 4 columns because I have 4 items, and I click `OK` and suddenly these things are distributed across the screen horizontally. Now if I click the up arrow, the item moves left and right!

The bad thing about using columns is that the columns are of uniform width, so they do not dynamically change according to the number of characters that are in the word the way it would do in HTML with CSS.

To convert a Word `.docx` file to `HTML`, run the following command (LibreOffice must not be open in a graphical environment when you try to do this):

```libreoffice --headless --convert-to html foobar.docx
```

To convert the same document to `.odt` format, run this command.

```libreoffice --headless --convert-to odt foobar.docx
```

### 57 - LibreOffice Impress - Styles and Objects 2 - Drawing Object Styles - Ahuka | 2015-07-17

In the previous tutorial we looked at Presentation Styles, and I started with them because they were mostly similar to what we already covered in Writer when we looked at Paragraph styles. But Impress is a graphical product, so we need to wrap our heads around a different set of issues here. and that brings us to Drawing Object Styles.

For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1182

### 56 - LibreOffice Impress - Styles and Objects 1 - Presentation Styles - Ahuka | 2015-07-03

We have previously looked at Styles for Writer, and for Calc, and now it is time to look at them for Impress. You may recall from both Writer and Calc that we saw it is important to know that Styles live inside of Templates. So any time you change a Style you needed to make sure it was saved inside of a Template, and if you wanted it to be generally available in all documents or spreadsheets you needed to be sure to make the change inside the Default Template. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1125

### 54 - LibreOffice Impress - Templates and Master Pages - Ahuka | 2015-06-19

The terms Template and Master Pages refer to the same thing, but inside the Impress application they are referred to as Master Pages, and they are accessed on the right-hand side of the page. If you as the author do not choose a specific Template to use when creating a new presentation, Impress will base the presentation on the default Template that is built in to Impress. But you can create your own default Template if you like. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1188

### 54 - LibreOffice Impress - Creating a Presentation - Ahuka | 2015-06-05

Having looked at the theory of building a good presentation, now we can look at the mechanics of how to build a presentation. This will take you step-by-step through the creation process and get you ready to create your own awesome presentations. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1188

### 53 - LibreOffice Impress - Outlining and Blank Presentations - Ahuka | 2015-05-08

Having looked at the screen layout, now we can look at how to build a presentation by focusing on the content first, and not the eye candy. This can be done by creating an outline, or by beginning with a blank presentation. We discuss both and give some ideas on which to use in each situation. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1100

### 52 - LibreOffice Impress - Moving Around - Ahuka | 2015-04-24

Now we can start to take a look at the actual Impress application, and we begin by looking a how the program is laid out on the screen. Knowing where to find key features is important in using the program efficiently. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1112

### 51 - LibreOffice Impress - Overview and Guidance - Ahuka | 2015-04-10

We begin the discussion of Impress, the Presentation Graphics (i.e. slide deck) component of Libre Office. In this episode we look at some of the basic issues around presentations that you need to consider *before* you open up the software. Constructing a good presentation is not easy, and there are some good principles that the masters of the art can impart. WE discuss some of these here and provide links to good resources. For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=1087

### Free tutorials for teachers - Ahuka | 2015-03-27

I have received a very generous offer from Bernard J. Poole, a professor at the University of Pittsburgh. He has a series of LibreOffice Tutorials and has asked me to publicize that they are available free of charge to all of our LibreOffice fans on Hacker Public Radio. You can find his tutorials on his web site at http://www.pitt.edu/~poole/. He is particularly aiming his tutorials at educators who might use LibreOffice in the classroom

### 49 - LibreOffice Calc - Creating a Template with Styles - Ahuka | 2015-03-13

The last few tutorials have looked at the techniques you need to master to use Styles and Templates effectively, but putting these into practice is essential to understanding them, I believe. So it is time for us to actually built a Template that incorporates a few styles and put the whole package together. For my example, I am going to create something useful for a consultant who needs to keep track of time for billing customers.

### 48 - LibreOffice Calc - Cell Styles - Ahuka | 2015-02-27

Our next topic is Cell Styles. If you are already familiar with Styles from Writer, think of Cell Styles as the equivalent of Writers Paragraph Styles. Just as a single Writer document can have a variety of Paragraph Styles applied to different paragraphs (e.g. Headings, Lists, Paragraphs), a single spreadsheet can have multiple Cell Styles. And the same arguments for using Styles also apply. If you have consistently used Cell Styles in your spreadsheet, you can update the appearance easily just by changing the Style instead of needing to go through the file looking for every cell that needs to be adjusted. And by using Styles you can apply a large number of formatting choices to many cells with just a few mouse clicks. So it really does pay to learn how to use Cell Styles.

### 47 - LibreOffice Calc - Page Styles and Page Settings - Ahuka | 2015-02-13

Page Styles in LibreOffice Calc set the properties for entire sheets of your workbook file. In any given Template you can have different sheets with different Page Styles if you wish, but for any given sheet you can only have one Page Style. And dont be confused by the difference between a sheet in the file and a page when printed. One single sheet may take many physical pages to print, but it is all one sheet and it is all governed by a single Page Style.

### 46 - LibreOffice Calc - The Object Model and Using Templates - Ahuka | 2015-01-30

As I said in the last tutorial, Templates can be understood as a container for a number of settings, most particularly Styles. This follows the object model, which is a lot like those Russian dolls inside of each other. The File for your spreadsheet is an object, and it contains individual Sheets which are objects. Each Sheet contains Cells which are objects. And each Cell contains various Characters which are objects, which can be used to represent numbers, formulas, addresses, labels, etc. Objects exhibit two features we always want to keep in mind. First, objects have properties that are particular to the kind of object. The properties of a file might include who the author is, where the file resides on the system, any access restrictions (like making the file password-protected), and so on.

The properties of each sheet might include things like the name of the sheet, the orientation (landscape vs. portrait), headers and footers, etc. Then the properties of the cell might include the type of cell and how it is formatted (text, currency, general number, etc.). And finally the properties of the Character include the font family, font style, font size, and so on.

### 45 - LibreOffice Calc - Styles and Templates Introduced - Ahuka | 2015-01-16

When we were looking at Writer we saw that Styles and Templates are key concepts to using any word processor. They are not quite as central in spreadsheet use, and one can be a proficient user without resort to them, but they do give you control over the appearance of your spreadsheets, and can give the sheets you create uniform appearance. We discussed these ideas in great detail in our Writer tutorials, so I am going to hope that some of that knowledge has carried over here. Still, lets get to some basic concepts:

### 44 - LibreOffice Calc - Working With Pivot Tables - Ahuka | 2014-12-19

We take a look at one of the most powerful, but somewhat frightening, features of modern spreadsheets. But knowing the basics of pivot tables should make them a bit less frightening to the newcomer.

### 43 - LibreOffice Calc - Creating Pivot Tables - Ahuka | 2014-12-05

We take a look at one of the most powerful, but somewhat frightening, features of modern spreadsheets. But knowing the basics of pivot tables should make themn a bit less frightening to the newcomer.

### 42 - LibreOffice Calc - Data Manipulation 2: Standard and Advanced Filters - Ahuka | 2014-11-21

You can set a Standard Filter from within the AutoFilter drop-down, or you can go there through the Data menu by selecting Data>Filter>Standard Filter. Now lets look at the question we ended the last tutorial with: How many females over the age 40 had a case in 1978. We saw we could get this by manually putting checkmarks in every age that was greater than 40 using AutoFilter, but how do we do this using Standard Filter? - For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=897

### 41 - LibreOffice Calc - Data Manipulation 1: Sorting and AutoFilter - Ahuka | 2014-11-07

The next major area of investigation for this series is how we can do data manipulation in Calc. Although Calc is not a database, it can be used for some data analysis and manipulation. When I worked for the finance department of a hospital, it was very common for the financial analysts to get a data dump from a centralized system as a CSV file, load it up in a spreadsheet, and then slice-and-dice the data to get the answers they wanted. It is not anywhere near what you can do with a good relational database and a structured query, but you can do some quick-and-dirty analysis here. - For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=879

### 40 - LibreOffice Calc - Other Functions - Ahuka | 2014-10-24

We spent a lot of time looking at some Financial and Statistical functions. I don't propose to go into the remaining types of function in nearly the same depth. That would draw out the series without benefit to most people. But I do want to highlight some of the functions in the other categories so that you have an idea of what is possible in Calc. Remember that if you need to know more about them Google is your friend. - For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=875

### 39 - LibreOffice Calc - Inferential Statistics Functions - Ahuka | 2014-10-10

Inferential statistics is what you do to say that something is likely, or that it is not due to chance, or things of the sort. It goes beyond simply describing what is in the numbers and lets you say something about what the numbers in a sample might mean for the population that generated the sample. There are several type of Inferential Statistics that I want to address in this tutorial, beginning with the idea of a confidence interval. - For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=861

### 38 - LibreOffice Calc - simple Descriptive Statistics - Ahuka | 2014-09-26

In Statistics there are generally speaking two types of analysis, broken down between Descriptive and Inferential statistics. The difference has to do what what claims you are making about the data. If you are simply stating something about the data (e.g. there were more men than women in the sample) that is descriptive. But if you make a claim that something is not likely to occur by chance, for instance, or that something is statistically significant (and both of those statements are essentially the same thing) then you are in the realm of inferential statistics. Calc has functions to do both kinds of analysis, and this tutorial will examine some of the common descriptive statistics in Calc and how they are used. - For more go to http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=844

### 37 - LibreOffice Calc - More Financial Functions - Ahuka | 2014-09-12

We take a look at a number of related financial functions in this episode, and discover that they are strongly related by using the same variables over and over. We construct a Mortgage Repayment Schedule, and look again at the principles of good spreadsheet construction.

### 36 - LibreOffice Calc - Financial Functions - Loan Payments - Ahuka | 2014-08-29

In this episode we discuss the function for determining the loan payments on a car loan, compare a manual calculation with the use of the PMT function, and derive some useful lessons.

### 35 - LibreOffice Calc - Introduction to Functions - Ahuka | 2014-08-15

In this episode we review what a function is, discuss the different types of functions available in LibreOffice, discuss the concept of arguments in mathematics, and present a general process for using functions in Calc.

### 34 - LibreOffice Calc - More on Chart Editing - Ahuka | 2014-08-01

In this episode we review the options for editing your chart, do a brief recap of the object model, and create an example of a chart with a secondary Y-axis.

### 33 - LibreOffice Calc - Creating Charts - Ahuka | 2014-07-18

In creating a chart or graph you have a number of options that can make your chart easier to read and understand. In this episode we look at these options and explain what each of them does.

### 32 - LibreOffice Calc - Introduction to Charts and Graphs - Ahuka | 2014-07-04

There are many Charts and Graphs available in LibreOffice Calc, but choosing the right one makes a difference. In this episode we review your options and help you to make the right choice.

### 31 - LibreOffice Calc - Sheet Editing and Navigation - Ahuka | 2014-06-20

This episode covers various editing techniques you might use, including multiple sheets, and adding, removing and hiding rows and columns. We also discuss how to navigate around a multiple sheet spreadsheet.

LibreOffice Calc, like all spreadsheets, contains a large number of cells in various rows, columns, and sheets, and navigating that can get a little tricky. As we saw previously, each cell has an address, which is marked by the column (letters) and the row (numbers), always in that order. But in fact the address can be larger because we never discussed sheets.

By default, when you create a new Calc spreadsheet you will have three sheets in it, which you see as tabs along the bottom of the screen. They will be called Sheet 1, Sheet 2, and Sheet 3 at this point. But these defaults can be changed by going to Tools–>Options–>LibreOffice Calc–>Defaults. On this screen you can decide how many sheets you want to have on a new document. While the default as it comes is three (similar to Microsoft Excel) you can change it. On my copy of Calc I changed it to 1, because most of the time I never need more than one sheet for my work. I can also change the default naming of new sheets here. Instead of each sheet being “Sheet 1″, Sheet 2″, etc. I could make it something else, like “Tab 1″, “Tab 2″. and so on. I never bother with this though, because I will always name my sheets for what they are doing in a given spreadsheet (e.g. look at what I did when I created the simple model for “What-If” analysis.) And if I need to add a sheet, I can just go to Insert–>Sheet to bring up a window to specify where the sheet should go, what it should be named, or even insert a sheet from a file . A CSV file would be a very good choice here, such as if you wanted to bring in data from a database or another spreadsheet for use in the current spreadsheet.

### 30 - LibreOffice Calc - A Savings Model - Ahuka | 2014-06-06

In the previous tutorial we discussed the fundamental ideas of building models and doing “What-If?” analysis. Now we need to take these ideas and put them into practice so you can see how this works. To do this I will create a simple model of savings over time. Now, I do want to be clear that this is a very over-simplified model and should not be taken as a good predictor of actual results. The idea is to illustrate the techniques involved in building a model and doing “What-If?” analysis.

So. what are the variables, parameters, assumptions, etc. that we need? I have identified these in my model:

• An initial amount of money already saved. This is the starting amount you have.
• An amount of money you add to your savings each year.
• The rate of return on your savings

For the remainder of the show notes please see http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=761

A copy of the spreadsheet created for this program can be found at http://www.ahuka.com/?attachment_id=763

### 29 - LibreOffice Calc - Models and "What-If" Analysis - Ahuka | 2014-05-23

The next topic is extremely important because it addresses where most beginning users of spreadsheets get into trouble. First, understand that building models and doing "What-If" analysis is fundamental to the success and widespread adoption of spreadsheets all over the world. A model can be thought of as a mathematical representation of a process of some kind. It could be financial, such as projecting my sales over the next year, or perhaps working out when my car loan will be paid off. Or it could be scientific, such as projecting out the reaction times and quantities in a chemical reaction. The only real requirement is that whatever you are modeling has to be something that can be represented using mathematical formulas of some kind.

"What-If" analysis takes this model and lets you experiment to see how how changes in different variables affect the results in your model. If I am figuring out when my car loan will be paid off, I might ask how paying an extra \$20 per month against the principle would affect my results (presumably, it should lead to getting it paid off sooner if I set the model up correctly.) Or in the case of the chemical process, how would different temperatures or pressures affect the reaction times and quantities? By experimenting with different values in my model I can do this comparison easily. But only if I built the model properly in the first place.

For the remainder of the show notes please see http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=752

### 28 - LibreOffice Calc - Fills, an Introduction - Ahuka | 2014-05-09

One of the key techniques in using a spreadsheet is to master the art of fills, which lets you fill a column or a row with data without having to type in every cell individually. And this technique requires that there be a predictable pattern to the contents of each cell as you fill them. But you can do a lot with this technique, and we will want to use this when we do our first model, which will be a simple savings model.

But first we need to build the tools in our tool kit, and fills are a big one. To begin with, you can fill either rows or columns, though columns are more frequently filled using this technique. Still, it is good to know you can do either. The simplest fill begins with a cell that has some kind of contents. For example, lets say that cell B1 contains the word "Rain". If you click on the cell, you will see it highlighted with a thick black border

For the remainder of the show notes please see http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=734

### 27 - LibreOffice Calc - Calculations and the Formula Bar - Ahuka | 2014-04-25

Since the main purpose of a spreadsheet is to perform calculations it is appropriate that we consider just how this is done.

In general, a cell of a spreadsheet can contain one of three things:

• A number
• Text
• A formula

All calculations are done using formulas. A formula occurs whenever a cell has contents that begin with an equals sign, which is the signal to Calc that it needs to perform a calculation. For instance, if a cell contains "A3+B3", Calc would examine this, see the letters and the plus sign, and decide that the contents of the cell were a text string. After all, it cannot be a pure number with those other things there. But place an equals sign in front, so that the contents now read "=A3+B3" and Calc knows that this is formula, and will perform the calculation. And one of the best ways to interact with a cell that contains a formula is to use the Formula Bar, which normally appears just above the cells of the spreadsheet proper:

# LibreOffice Calc: Cells

All spreadsheets have the same basic structure, a table of rows and columns. Columns are headed up A, B, C, and so on. After Z, the next column is AA, then AB, AC, AD, and so on. The maximum number of columns is 1024. Rows are numbered 1,2,3 and so on, and the maximum number of rows is 1024*1024, or 1,048,576. At this time I am not aware of any plans to increase these numbers, though that could change if competitive pressures make it necessary.

Where a row and column intersect, there is a cell, which is given the address of the column followed by the row, e.g. A1, but never 1A. This is very useful since you can use the contents of a cell in a calculation by simply using the cell address. For example, to add the value of cell B4 to the value in cell C3 and store it, you would write “=B4+C3″ in the cell where you want to store the sum. Learning to use cell addresses is extremely important, so get in the habit of doing this at every opportunity.

# LibreOffice Calc: What is a Spreadsheet?

There are different ways to answer this question. Functionally, spreadsheets are a tool for mathematical calculations, but have branched out into related areas like data analysis. Some people even use them as a quick-and-dirty database tool. If you are in a financial profession of some kind you probably live in spreadsheets all day.

Spreadsheets are original “killer app”. Early examples were implemented on mainframe computers in the 1960s, but the big step was the creation of VisiCalc for the Apple II in 1979, which was then ported to the IBM PC in 1981. VisiCalc set the conventions that guided all subsequent spreadsheets, and the essential methods have not changed since then. VisiCalc was called the first killer app because people would buy the computer just to run the program, and the usefulness of spreadsheets is what promoted the initial entry of personal computers into the corporate world, with all of the change that has caused.

### 24 - LibreOffice Writer A Brochure Project - Ahuka | 2014-03-14

The written version of this show can be found at http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=676 The European version of the brochure. The American version of the brochure.

# Other Page Layout Options

As we mentioned in beginning our look at Page Layout, you have some options other than just Page Styles and Frame Styles, useful though they are. So let’s spend a few moments looking at these other options and see how they work.

## Tables

Tables can be a useful tool for more than just displaying tabular data. You can place different object in each cell of a table and so have some control over how things are laid out on the page. You could, for instance, place your sub-heads in a left-hand column, and the associated text in an adjoining column, which gives you the same effect as using the Marginalia style. And you can add pictures, charts, and other objects as well. You can even insert a table into a cell of another table to get more fine-grained control. In fact, in the days before Cascading Style Sheets and Javascript, tables were the primary way of laying out Web pages, though these days that is frowned upon, and in any case most Web pages are now created using some kind of CMS software like WordPress, or Drupal. The idea of using tables was more attractive when we realized you could turn-off the cell borders and make them invisible. Of course, in Writer documents that only works when they are printed. When opened on a computer the table borders are still visible, as indeed they would have to be for you to edit the document.

### 22 - LibreOffice Writer Other Frame Styles - Ahuka | 2014-02-14

This continues our look at frames by looking at frame styles for things other than text.

# LibreOffice Writer Other Frame Styles

In the previous tutorial we looked at using the frame style for text, which is not called the Text style, but the Frame style, which may be confusing. This is a very common use of frames, but there are others. To start the discussion, let’s get back to the basic concept of objects. LibreOffice is an object-oriented program and you should keep this in mind when dealing with this software.

A piece of text can be an object, and it can contain other objects (paragraphs, sentences, words, characters), or it can be contained within other objects (section, chapter, document). In the case we are looking at, a frame is an object, which contains other objects, and is in turn contained within larger objects (page, section, document). Depending on the objects being contained, the frame styles can be different, and that is what we need to look at now.

Please see http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=671 for the rest of the article

### 21 - LibreOffice Writer Frame Properties Completed - Ahuka | 2014-01-31

This is the second of two programs that look at Frame properties in LibreOffice Writer. In the first program we looked at how to size and position Frames. Here we look at other things you can do, such as name your frames for linking, wrap text around frames, set the borders and backgrounds, and even add columns to the frame. This finishes the look at the Properties window and what you can do there.

This tutorial can be found in written form on my Web site at http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=652

### 20 - LibreOffice Writer Frames - Introduction and the Type Tab - Ahuka | 2014-01-17

This episode introduces the discussion of Frames in LibreOffice Writer by opening the Properties window and looking at the first tab, Type. Because there is so much to discuss about this tab, it is the only one we will look at in this episode. In the next episode we will wrap up the discussion of Frame properties by looking at the other tabs in this window

The written version of this tutorial can be found on my Web site at http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=476

### 19 - LibreOffice Writer Working with Page Styles - Ahuka | 2014-01-03

In this episode of our LibreOffice series we take the concept of Page Styles, and show how to use them to create an elegant document.

Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

This program has a written page at http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=608

Remember to support free software!

### 18 - LibreOffice Writer Page Styles Introduced - Ahuka | 2013-12-20

In this episode of our LibreOffice series we introduce the concept of Page Styles, and take a look at how their properties can be controlled.

Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

This program has a written page at http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=488

Remember to support free software!

### 17 - LibreOffice Writer Overview of Page Layout Options - Ahuka | 2013-12-06

In this episode of our LibreOffice series we begin our look at how you control page layout.

Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

This program has a written page at http://www.ahuka.com/?page_id=478

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 16 Writer Nested Lists Controlled via Styles - Ahuka | 2013-11-22

In this episode of our LibreOffice series take the Nested lists and see how we can control them using Styles.

## Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 15 Writer Nested Lists Introduced - Ahuka | 2013-11-08

In this episode of our LibreOffice series we look at Nested lists, a tricky but powerful techinque to use.

## Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 14 Writer A Numbered List Style Deconstructed - Ahuka | 2013-10-25

In this episode of our LibreOffice series we take one of the Numbered List styles in LibreOffice Writer and go through the Properties window to learn how it is put together

## Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 13 Writer A Bullet Style Deconstructed - Ahuka | 2013-10-11

In this episode of our LibreOffice series we take one of the Bullet List styles in LibreOffice Writer and go through the Properties window to learn how it is put together

## Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 12 Writer List Styles Introduced - Ahuka | 2013-09-27

This episode of the LibreOffice series introduces the concept of List Styles in LibreOffice Writer. We discuss List Styles in general and tour the Properties window for List styles.

## Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 11 Writer Character Styles - Ahuka | 2013-09-13

Mentioned in the program: http://www.csszengarden.com/

## Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 10 Writer Paragraph Styles in Templates - Ahuka | 2013-08-30

Mentioned in the program: http://extensions.libreoffice.org/

## Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

## Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

## Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

## Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

## Some useful sites

My web site is at hhttp://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 05 Writer Style Properties 2 - Ahuka | 2013-06-21

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 04 Writer Style Properties 1 - Ahuka | 2013-06-11

Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 03 Writer Introduction to Styles - Ahuka | 2013-02-22

Some useful sites

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 02 Writer Default Template - Ahuka | 2012-12-27

Some useful sites

• http://www.libreoffice.org/get-help/documentation/
• http://wiki.documentfoundation.org/Documentation/Publications
• http://gofree.com/Tutorials/
• http://en.libreofficeforum.org/

My web site is at http://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### LibreOffice 01 Introduction to Office software - Ahuka | 2012-12-10

LibreOffice

Some useful sites

My web site is at hhttp://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### Separate Presentation from Content - 2 Office Software - Ahuka | 2012-10-10

Alfresco http://www.alfresco.com/

Ohio LinuxFest is September 28-30 in Columbus, Ohio. Go to https://ohiolinux.org/ for more information.

My web site is at hhttp://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!

### Separate Presentation from Content - 1 The Web - Ahuka | 2012-09-12

The W3C page on why you should do this: http://www.w3.org/TR/WCAG20-TECHS/G140

The The Universal Usability page: http://universalusability.com/access_by_design/document_structure/separate.html

Wikipedia has an article at: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Separation_of_presentation_and_content

CSS Zen Garden shows how the look of a page can change with the same content : http://www.csszengarden.com/

Ohio LinuxFest is September 28-30 in Columbus, Ohio. Go to https://ohiolinux.org/ for more information.

My web site is at hhttp://www.ahuka.com/.

Remember to support free software!